Particle Physics

Subatomic particles can be divided into material fermions, and the energy-like bosons.


The fundamental particle making up all fermions is the darill. These combine to make the four generations of quarks and the corresponding four generations of leptons.

Generation quarks1leptons2
+⅔ -⅓
Iup uniquedown dreamelectron e
IIcentral charmsprial strangemuon μ
IIItop truthbottom beautytau τ
IVleft loveright rhymeyaon я

Each generation shows the +⅔ charged quark1, its -⅓ counterpart, and the corresponding lepton2 family.

  • I: up unique / down dream / electron e
  • II: centre charm / sprial strange / muon μ
  • III: top truth / bottom beauty / tau τ
  • IV: left love / right rhyme / yaon я

1 Both the prosaic and poetic names of the quarks are included.

2 Each lepton generation consists of the basic particle with charge 1, and a neutrino with charge 0.

Every fermion has an antiparticle of the opposite charge.